The Start Apple (Chrysophyllum cainito)
BY NORIS LEDESMA
FAIRCHILD TROPICAL BOTANIC GARDEN
As published in the Miami Herald
Apple (Chrysophyllum cainito) is a tropical
fruit native to the lowlands of Central America
and West India. The fruit has a star like design when it is
sliced, hence its common name Star Apple.
The start apple its mostly appreciated as a fruit tree in home landscapes.
It is a beautiful tree, making a perfect tree for landscaping in South Florida. The canopy opens forming an umbrella shape
where the underside leaves shines with a golden brown color meanwhile the upper
side shines with an emerald green color. The tiny flowers are purplish white
and have a sweet fragrant smell than attracts hummingbirds and bees.
fruit exist in two colors, dark purple and green. The purple fruit has a denser
skin and texture while the greenish fruit has a thin skin and a more liquid
pulp. Both have a delicate flesh than explodes with juice in your mouth with
each bite. The star apple fruit range from sweet with just a hint of perfume to
sweet floral aroma. Start apple go under a number of names including
cainito, caimito, golden leaf tree, and
Botanic Garden has been
selecting superior varieties of start apple in different locations with emphasis
from the Pacific coast of Costa
Rica. These selections are purple and green
skinned and were selected for superior production and fruit quality.
Enthusiasm for growing and eating
uncommon fruits will probably create a need for skills in plant propagation. The start apple can be propagated by cuttings,
air layers or grafting. Seed propagation can be used to develop new cultivars.
The fruits of seedlings may not match the quality of its parent and in some
cases you must wait many years before a seedling bears its first fruit. A small commercial industry of start apple exits in south Florida and Local
nurseries carry grafted varieties, including 'Haitian Star', a purple peel
type, and 'Blanco Star', a green peel type.
varieties should be planted in the late spring. Start pruning for the future
when the tree still young. Proper training also will shape the tree to a form
that allows all the branches to be bathed in air and sufficient light, even
when the tree goes old. In the first years the branches should be tipped to
encourage the formation of a bushy canopy. A canopy with many branches will
bloom earlier than a canopy without pruning. Annual pruning of will trees at a manageable
height and provide ready access to the fruit.
trees should be fertilized three times per year (March, July and September) using 8-3-9 or other
fruit tree formulation. In the home landscape the tree
will require no irrigation after establishment. Mature trees are seriously
injured by low temperatures (below 28º F).
Start apple will start blooming from August to October
depending of the cultivar, and fruit are generally harvested from late winter or early spring to early summer. Fruit
do not fall when ripe and therefore must be harvested by hand when fully
mature. Fruit are fully mature when the skin color turns a dull color (purple
or green) and is slightly wrinkled and soft. Immature fruit will be astringent
and inedible due to the gummy latex found in the flesh. Once mature fruit are
picked, they may be allowed to fully ripen at room temperature. Once ripe,
fruit may be stored in the refrigerator until consumed.
has is a good source of vitamin C, rich in minerals, and potassium. The fruits
are delicious as a fresh dessert fruit. The ripe
fruit, preferably chilled, may be merely cut in half and the flesh spooned out,
leaving the seed cells and core. The sweet fruits are eaten raw and in desserts
and salads. They are also boiled and made into preserves. An interesting drink
called “matrimony” is prepared by scooping out the inside pulp of a
star apple and adding it to a glass of sour orange juice.
Ledesma is Curator of Tropical Fruit at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden.