Hong Liu, PhD
FIU & Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Research Ecologist
11935 Old Cutler Road
Miami, FL 33156 USA
Phone: 305-667-1651, ext. 3417
Department of Environmental Studies
11200 SW 8th Street
Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 USA
I am a conservation ecologist with research interests in plant species at the two opposite ends of the abundance spectrum. Specifically, I study and contrast, when possible, reproductive ecology, species interactions, and the population dynamics and viability of rare and abundant species. The latter includes invasive species. The ultimate goal of my research is to generate insights into the species’ ecology to guide biodiversity conservation and management efforts. My current research addresses important environmental issues such as the impacts of global changes on rare orchid populations and conservation of heavily exploited plant species. I am also interested in rare plant restoration, especially of endangered orchids. I have first authored or co-authored more than 40 peer-reviewed articles on these subjects, with the majority in well-known journals. I have also authored two peer-reviewed book chapters.
Education and Training
Postdoctoral Research Scientist, Cooperative Agreement Program, University of Florida and Invasive Plant Research Laboratory, ARS, USDA (2005-2008).
Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Florida.(2003-2005).
Ph.D. Biology, Florida International University (2003). Dissertation: Population viability analyses of Chamaecrista keyensis, a narrowly endemic herb of the Lower Florida Keys.
M.S. Botany, Clemson University (1997).
B.S. Ecology, Nanjing University (1989).
Recent Publications (2008 – Present)
Ren, H., S. – G. Jian, Y. –J. Chen, H. Liu, Q. –M. Zhang, N. Liu, Y. Xu, and J. Luo. In press. Distribution, status and conservation of Camellia changii Ye (Theaceae), a critically endangered, endemic plant in southern China. Oryx.
Platt. S. G., R. M. Elsey, H. Liu, et al. In press. Frugivory and seed dispersal by crocodilians: An over-looked form of saurochory? Journal of Zoology.
Downing, J., and H. Liu. Self-incompatibility in Byrsonima lucida (Malpighiaceae), a threaterned pine rockland specialist. Castanea 78(2): 95-102.
Ren, H., Q. –F. Guo, H. Liu, et al. In press. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China. Journal of Coastal Research.
Liu, H., Y.-B. Luo, and Z. –J. Liu. 2013. Using guided commercialized cultivation models to promote species conservation and sustainable utilization: an example from the Chinese medicinal orchids. (以产业化促进可物种保护和可持续利用的新模式：以兰花为例). Biodiversity Science 21: 132-135. (Journal cover article, in Chinese with an English Abstract. This journal, in Chinese language only, ranks #4 among the biological journals in the country).
Liu, H., C. –L. Feng, B. –S. Chen, Z. –S. Wang, X. –Q. Xie, et al. 2012. Overcoming extreme weather events: successful but variable assisted translocations of wild orchids in southwestern China. Biological Conservation 150: 68-75. IF= 4.115; cited 2 times.
Downing, J., and H. Liu. 2012. Friend or foe? Impacts of the invasive oil-collecting bee on native, specialized plant-pollinator interactions in southern Florida. Biological Invasions 14: 2175-2185.
Pemberton, R.W. and H. Liu. 2011. Naturalized yellow cowhorn orchid, Cyrtopodium flavum (Orchidaceae), spreading in Florida. Journal of Botanical Research Institute of Texas 5: 331-335.
Maschinski, J., M. Ross, H. Liu, J. O’Brien, E. J. von Wettberg, and K. E. Haskins. 2011. Sinking ships: Conservation alternatives for endemic taxa threatened by sea level rise. Climatic Change 107: 147-167.
Wang, Z. –S., H. Liu, W. –X. Xu, N. Wei, S. –Q. An. 2010. Genetic diversity in young and mature cohorts of cultivated and wild populations of Picea asperata Mast (Pinaceae), a spruce endemic in western China. European Journal of Forest Research 129: 719-72.
Liu, H.-X., Y. –B. Luo, and H. Liu*. 2010. Studies of mycorrhizal fungi of Chinese orchids and their role in orchid conservation in China – a review. Botanical Review 76: 241-262. (*corresponding author).
Liu, H. and Y. –B. Luo. 2010. Protecting orchids in nature reserves: research and restoration needs. Botanical Review 76: 137-139.
Francisco-Ortega, J., F.-G. Wang, Z. -S. Wang, F. -W. Xing, H. Liu, H. Xu, W. -X. Xu, Y. –B. Luo, X. -Q. Song, S. Gale, D. E. Boufford, M. Maunder, and S.-Q. An. 2010. Endemic seed plant species from Hainan Island: A checklist. Botanical Review 76: 295-345.
Francisco-Ortega, J., Z. -S. Wang, F.-G. Wang, F. -W. Xing, H. Liu, H. Xu, W. -X. Xu, Y. –B. Luo, X. -Q. Song, S. Gale, D. E. Boufford, M. Maunder, and S.-Q. An. 2010. Seed plant endemism on Hainan Island: A framework for conservation actions. Botanical Review 76: 346-376.
Liu, F. –D., W. –J. Yang, Z. –S. Wang, Z. Xu, H. Liu, M. Zhang, Y. –H. Liu, S. –Q. An, S. –C. Sun. 2010. Plant size effects on the relationships among specific leaf area, leaf nutrientcontent, and photosynthetic capacity in tropical woody species. Acta Oecologica 36: 149-159.
Platt, S. G., H. Liu*, and C. K. Borg. 2010. Fire mortality among Florida Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on National Key Deer Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Natural Areas Journal 30: 254-260. (*corresponding author).
Wang Z. –S., S. –Q. An, H. Liu* , J. Feng , F. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z.-F. Deng, N. Wei , C. Yan, S. Chen , S.-Y. Liu. 2009. Effects of stand regeneration management regimes and age on genetic structure of Quercus aquifolioides (sclerophyllous oak) in southwestern China. Forest Science 52: 142-148. (*corresponding author).
Liu, H. and R. W. Pemberton. 2009. Invasive orchid bee outperforms co-occurring native bees to promote an invasive Solanum. Oecologia 159: 515-525.
Pemberton, R. W. and H. Liu*. 2009. Marketing time determines naturalization rates of horticultural plants in Florida. Ecology 90: 69-80. (*corresponding author).
Platt, S. G., C. Hall, H. Liu, and C. K. Borg. 2009. Wet season food habits and intersexual dietary overlap of Florida Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on National Key Deer Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Southeastern Naturalist 8: 335-346.
Liu, H. and R. W. Pemberton. 2008. Pollination of an invasive and rewardless orchid (Cyrtopodium polyphyllum) by an invasive oil-collecting bee in natural and residential areas in Florida. Botany 88: 290-295.
Pemberton, R. W. and H. Liu*. 2008. Potential of invasive and native solitary specialist bee pollinators to help restore the rare cowhorn orchid (Cyrtopodium punctatum) in Florida. Biological Conservation 141: 1758-1764. (* corresponding author).
Liu, H. and R. W. Pemberton. 2008. Differential soil seed bank longevity of an invasive woody vine (Paederia foetida L) across three habitats in Florida. Journal of Torrey Botanical Society. 135: 391-496.
Pemberton, R. W. and H. Liu. 2008. A naturalized orchid bee pollinates resin reward flowers in southern Florida; novel and known mutualism. Biotropica 40: 714-718.
Pemberton, R. W. and H. Liu. 2008. The naturalization of the oil collecting bee Centris nitida (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centrini), a potential pollinator of selected native, ornamental, and invasive plants in Florida. Florida Entomologist 91: 101-109.
Pemberton, R. W. and H. Liu. 2008. Naturalization of Dalechampia scandens in southern Florida. Caribbean Journal of Science 44: 417-419.
Recent Grants and Awards
- Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Funds. January 2012-Dec 2014. In-situ and ex-situ conservation and restoration of the endemic and endangered Guizhou Georodum orchid in Southwestern China. $15,000. PI: Hong Liu.
- Governor’s Special Grant, Guangxi Science and Technology Bureau, Oct 2010 – Dec 2012. Conservation Ecology of selected endangered orchids in Yachang Orchid Nature Reserve. $74,000 (0.5 million RMB). PI: Hong Liu.
- Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Funds. July 2009-Dec 2010. Habitat analyses of selected endangered orchids in Southwestern China. $17,000. PI: Hong Liu..
- Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Funds. June 2009-Dec 2011. Conservation of Carpinus putoensis, a critically endangered island tree species endemic to the Zhoushan Archipelago of China. $25,000. co. PI: Hong Liu.
- Guangxi Provincial Government. May 2009. Guangxi International Orchid Conservation Symposium. $100,000. I am one of the principle organizers of the symposium.
- Summer Faculty Development Award, College of Arts and Science, Florida International University. May-August 2009. Comparative study of symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi requirements of an endangered native orchid and it introduced invasive congener in South Florida. $8,704. PI: Hong Liu.
Active Research Projects
- Population ecology and conservation of selected rare and endangered species in the Guangxi Yachang National Orchid Nature Reserve. With collaborators from the Institute of Botany and Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Guangxi University.
- Conservation strategies of over-exploited Chinese medicinal orchids. Hong Liu working with Colleagues at the National Orchid Conservation Center of China, Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Orchid Conservation and Utilization, and the Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
- Chinese Endangered plant species reintroduction status, with special attention of the survivorship of plants translocated in the Three Gorge Dam and other hydropower project areas in China. Working with colleagues from South China Botanical Garden and Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
- Reintroduction of selected rare and threatened orchids of South Florida at the Fakahatchee State Preserve.
- Comparative ecology on orchid-mycorrhizal relationship between native rare orchid and its introduced invasive congeners in South Florida. Led by Jason Downing, FIU/FTBG Ph.D. candidate.
- Endemic birds and palms interactions on Halmahera Island, Indonesia. Led by Melissa Abdo, FIU/FTBG Ph.D. candidate.
- Assessment of population status of selected rare and threatened orchids in South Florida. Led by Mario Cisnero, FIU/FTBG MS student.
Teaching and Mentoring
List of courses taught at FIU and years in which they were taught:
- EVR 3013 Ecology of South Florida, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013 (large enrollment class with more or less 70 students each term)
- EVR 4323 Restoration Ecology: Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring 2013 (35 students more or less each term)
- EVR 4934 (became EVR 4323L-U01 from Spring 2011 onward) Restoration Ecology Lab: Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring 2013 (25 students more or less each term)
- EVR 5935-U02 and EVR 4934-U02 Ecology and Management of Invasive Species: Fall 2009 (co-taught with Jennifer Rehage)
- EVR 4934 U05 and 5935 U04 Special Topics in Plant Animal Interactions, Spring 2013 (co-taught at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden with FIU’s Suzanne Koptur, UM’s Carol Horvitz, and Fairchild’s Joyce Maschinski)
Student advising at FIU-Undergraduate research projects supervised:
- Carlos Quintero, Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Ecology of introduced bees and orchids
- Paul Nunez, Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Ecological studies of Chinese wild orchids
- Haydee Borrero, Spring and Fall 2012. Ecological studies of Chinese wild orchids
- Erin Marie Praver, Summer 2012. Impacts of invasive bees on native mutualism
- Shannon McAskill, Summer 2012. Impacts of invasive bees on native mutualism
- Christine Beck, Summer 2012. Impacts of invasive bees on native mutualism
- Kristine Matos, Fall 2010-Fall 2012. Evaluation of invasive risk of the Florida horticultural plants, Agroecology program
- Daniel Alfonso, Fall 2010. Pollination interactions between selected native plants and bees
- David Herbella, Summer 2010. Pollination interactions between selected native plants and bees
- Santiago Agango, Spring 2010. Interaction between selected native plants and introduced bees
- Briana Baham, Fall 2009, nest ecology of an invasive bee in southern Florida
- Tiara Thanawastien, Spring and Summer 2009, ecology of an invasive orchid in southern Florida
Graduate thesis committees:
- Jason Downing, Ph.D. student, Fall 2011 – present. Comparative ecology on orchid-mycorrhizal relationship between native rare orchid and its introduced invasive congeners in South Florida. Advanced to candidacy in Spring 2013.
- Melissa Abdo, Ph.D. student, Spring 2012 – present. Endemic bird and palm interactions on Halmahera Island, Indonesia. Advanced to candidacy in Spring 2013.
- Mario Cisnero, MS student, Fall 2013 – present. Assessment of population status of selected rare and threatened orchids in South Florida.
- Yogesh Dongol, Master student, Spring 2010-Spring 2012
- David Gandy, Master student, Spring 2011-present
- Nathan Paul Lemoine, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Biology, Fall 2011-present
- Evan Rehm, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Biology, Spring 2012 – present
- Michael Calonje, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Biology, Spring 2012-present
- Beyte Barrios Roque, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Biology, Spring 2012 – present
- James Stroud, Ph.D. student, Department of Biology, Spring 2013-present
- Julia S. Gehring, Ph.D. student, Department of Biology, Spring 2013- present
- Kerry Bohl, Ph. D. candidate, University of South Florida, April 1st, 2013 (I was the Chairperson and the external examiner of the defense)
- Jason Downing, Master degree, Spring 2011. Thesis: Impacts of invasive, specialist bee on native mutualism.
- Wuying Lin, Master degree, Spring 2012. Thesis: Comparative reproductive ecology of an rare and endangered orchid and its congeners.
- Cara Cooper, Master degree, Summer 2012. Thesis: Ecology of an invasive grass in southern Florida.
Graduate research projects supervised:
Brett Jestrew, Ph.D. Candidate, FIU-Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden graduate program, Summer 2009, A Conservation Genetics Study of Cymbidium cyperifolium (Orchidaceae) in southwestern China, funded by the NSF East Asia and Pacific Summer Institutes for Graduate Students.
Publications with or by graduate and undergraduate students:
- Downing, J.,* and H. Liu. In press. Self-incompatibility in Byrsonima lucida (Malpighiaceae), a threaterned pine rockland specialist. Castanea 78(2): 95-102.
- Downing, J.,* and H. Liu. 2012. Friend or foe? Impacts of the invasive oil-collecting bee on native, specialized plant-pollinator interactions in southern Florida. Biological Invasions 14: 2175-2185.
Chapters in Books (Peer-reviewed)
- Liu, H., C. –L. Feng, X.-Q. Xie, W. –Y. Lin*, Z. –H. Deng, X. –L. Wei, S. Y. Liu, and Y. –B. Luo. Accepted for publication. Impacts of extreme weather on flowering phenology of wild orchids in southwestern China. In Darwin’s Orchids—Now and then, Bernhardt, P., and R. Meier (Eds.) University of Chicago, Chicago.
- Abdo, M. E.* 2013. Unraveling the mysteries of the Spice Islands. The Tropical Garden. Spring issue: 22-27.
- Borrero, H.* and P. Nunez*. 2013. Conservation Research in wild China. The Tropical Garden. Winter issue: 16-17.
- Downing, J. L.* 2012. Oil bees, oil plants and orchids. The Tropical Garden. Spring issue: 50-53.
Works in Progress (* graduate and ** undergraduate students under my supervision)
- Lin, W.-Y.*, H. Liu, X.-K. Ma,et al. Natural hybridization potential between a rare endemic orchid and its sympatric congeners in southwestern China. In review. Orchids. Submitted in Oct 1, 2012.
- Lin, W.-Y*., H. Liu, X.-K. Ma,et al. Comparative reproductive biology of A rare endemic orchid and its sympatric congeners in southwestern China. Submitted in Sept 2013.
- Borrero, H.*, P. Nunez* and H. Liu. Living life on the edge gets more sex– an orchid’s story from limestone cliffs in southwestern China. In revision for resubmission.
Course, Curriculum Development Activities for Undergraduate Courses
- EVR 4374 Ecology and Management of Invasive Species (co-developed with Jennifer Rehage)
- EVR 4934-U05 Special topics: Plant Animal Interactions (a cross-institutional course co-developed with FIU’s Dr. Suzanne Koptur, University of Miami’s Dr. Carol Horvitz, and Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden’s Dr. Joyce Maschinski)
Course, Curriculum Development Activities for Graduate Courses
- EVR5375 Advanced Ecology and Management of Invasive Species (co-developed with Jennifer Rehage)
- EVR 5935-U04 Special topics: Advanced Plant Animal Interactions (a cross-institutional course co-developed with FIU’s Dr. Suzanne Koptur, University of Miami’s Dr. Carol Horvitz, and Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden’s Dr. Joyce Maschinski)
Updated October 5, 2013